A History of the Ministry of Information, 1939-46

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[Text Missing]Wt 16746. 10M 5/44. W.R.R. & S. Ltd. GP 38. (14).

No. 196. 6th July, 1944

(Covering period from 27th June to 4th July, 1944)


1. General

Good news from all fronts has maintained confidence at the same high level as last week, and has further encouraged belief in victory this year.

The flying bomb is “the only black spot in the picture”. Exaggerated rumours of damage and casualties are widespread, and there is a great demand for factual information with which to counter them. While concern is general, only in London are spirits really affected - they are lower now than at any time during the last two years.

Familiar home front grouses are again at a minimum.

(1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13)

2. Flying bombs

The country as a whole

In most parts of the country, flying bombs are more discussed than anything else. Though hardly anyone appears to think that they can alter the course of the war, people everywhere are taking them more seriously; some feel the Germans have definitely scored over us with them.

The reappearance of evacuees in many parts of the country, each with a lurid story to tell, has created a widespread impression that the raids are far more severe than indicated by press and radio. The request for volunteer wardens for duty in the affected places has also stressed the seriousness of the situation.

There is much sympathy for Londoners and great concern for relations and friends living in the danger areas.

Publicity about the raids : There is a widespread demand for more news to allay rumours and anxiety. The Government is criticised, in some cases very strongly, for withholding definite information about casualties, damage and the number of bombs destroyed.

There is some appreciation of the reasons for censorship, but it is thought that the Germans must have a good idea where the bombs are going, and that something is urgently needed to check the wild and exaggerated talk which is circulating.

People ask why the papers are allowed to publish German claims ... “people who read that the enemy claim that Southampton is in flames may not believe all of it, but they think there may be some basis in fact”. There are reports of increased listening to German broadcasts.

Rumours , most of them fantastically exaggerated, are circulating in all parts of the country and are reported in considerable numbers from every Region. These are attributed to evacuees, letters, travellers returning from the South, false deductions, German claims, and to the lack of official information with which to counteract them.

Rumours chiefly relate to:

(a) Damage , which is thought to be tremendous. The list of places damaged or razed to the ground includes most well-known London buildings and railway termini and a number of Thames bridges. Whole streets are said to be devastated by the bombs, each one of which “demolishes everything in a mile radius”. Thousands are homeless - 7,000 in Beckenham alone.

Southampton, Portsmouth, Liverpool, Luton, Bristol, Guildford, Reading, Worthing and Littlehampton are all thought to be more or less damaged.

(b) Casualties , also believed to be tremendous. The highest total rumoured - 250,000 - comes from London, where people “delight in scaring their neighbours with casualty figures”. Two of the Prime Minister's daughters are rumoured killed.

(c) Londoners' reactions . Many stories of “everybody leaving London”, trains packed to suffocation, Londoners worn out under the continuous strain, in their shelters day and night and unable to leave them even long enough to cook a meal. Evacuees have given the impression that these raids are far worse than the blitz. There is some fear that, Londoners' morale may give way under the strain of incessant alerts and continuous sleepless nights - if it has not done so already.

(d) The bomb itself . It is variously rumoured that:

  1. Bombs have reached a number of distant points, the furthest being Corby (near Kettering), Penarth and Treforest.

  2. Bombs come over in hundreds in the daytime, and every two minutes all through the night.

  3. Some of the bombs have been filled with gas. In the St. Pancras area and elsewhere in London the bombs of the last few days are rumoured to be different from the first - variously, gas bombs, rocket bombs or merely bigger.

  4. Spain has had a good deal to do with the production of these bombs - tungsten, chrome and wolfram being supplied as necessary components in their manufacture.

(e) Future flying bomb attacks

  1. There has been a spate of rumours that Haw Haw has named various places shortly to be attacked. In London these rumours are particularly numerous and persistent, and are said to circulate specially in areas which have been bombed, and more noticeably near to the damaged sites.

  2. In London it is rumoured that Eire is loaning the Germans bases in southern Ireland from which to launch the bombs.

(f) Servicemen's reactions . In London it is rumoured that

  1. Some servicemen are so anxious that they are refusing to return to their units after the three days compassionate leave allowed when their families have been bombed out - until they have managed to send their families out of London.

  2. The Germans are horrifying prisoners of war with ghastly tales of flying bomb damage.

Defences and countermeasures : Many think we shall soon overcome the flying bomb as we did the magnetic mine, but people seem about equally divided as to the success - or otherwise - of the countermeasures taken so far. The bombing of the launching bases satisfies some; others think it ineffective, some suspecting the R.A.F. is wasting time bombing dummy sites.

People want to know how many bombs are destroyed ... “If the percentage is as high as is claimed, facts would improve morale”.

However, whatever people think of countermeasures, it is generally felt that the only infallible cure will be the military occupation of the area in which the bases are situated.

Reprisals : Opinion is divided. Though some want us to reply by using gas or flying bombs, most people seem opposed to reprisals of this kind, if only because it might mean diverting our air power from military objectives. However, no one would object to even heavier bombing of German cities, it is thought.

Evacuation : Self-evacuated people in considerable numbers are arriving in many parts of the country, and causing a great problem in places which are already overcrowded. The fact that they are “unofficial evacuees” is said to make the problem of billeting them even more difficult; the need for organised official evacuation is mentioned in reports from four Regions. It is felt that unless there is compulsory billeting, good-natured people will bear the brunt.

People from London are said to be willing to pay anything and to sleep anywhere for the sake of a night's rest, and unscrupulous people are charging high prices just for accommodation on the floor.

In general, people are said to be sympathetically inclined towards the evacuees, though some resentment is reported against Jews whose behaviour is criticised, people who “arrive fecklessly without prior arrangement”, and those who are shirking responsibilities by coming. Particular evacuation problems relate to:

  1. Restricted areas : There is some demand that these areas should be opened for reception of the friends and relations of the inhabitants. A case is mentioned of a man, anxious to move his mother (aged 81 and living alone) out of London, being refused permission. It is said, too, that within these areas the regulations are being enforced differently in different places in face of the present influx.

  2. Evacuees arriving without money or clothing . One reported difficulty is that “evacuees without money may be given an authorisation by the Assistance Board for an emergency grant by the Ministry of Labour, but this does not apply to Forces' wives or old age pensioners; this is thought very unfair."

  3. Food . In the Eastern Region there is concern at the scarcity of food, particularly in restaurants. Many evacuees have found beds but must “eat out”, and in Hertford it is said to be difficult even to find a sandwich. “Rest Centres can only feed the bombed-out and the British Restaurant has insufficient staff”. It is hoped that the Ministry of Food will lose no time in sending extra supplies to reception areas.

Localised Reactions

A. LONDON : Reports from all parts of the London area mention the adverse effect the raids are having on Londoners, both in bombed and unbombed areas. Strain, weariness, fear and despondency are widely reported, particularly among women with children, those whose husbands are away, and the old and middle-aged.

Many think these raids worse than the blitz, both because of their continuity and their uncanniness.

A minority say “it's impossible to stick them much longer” and are said to be ready for “peace at any price” ... “After five years of war, there is a limit to what people can stand”.

A considerable number want retaliation and feel that nothing is too bad for the Germans. In Lambeth, Southwark and Deptford they are said to be demanding retaliation by gas “to bring a sense of horror to the sadistic Germans”.

Nevertheless, a good many people are becoming adjusted to the raids and are standing up to them well.

Lack of sleep is one of the effects most generally complained of and is said to be causing much absenteeism and lateness among workers.

Attitude to the Government : A good deal of criticism of the Government is reported - some of it rather unspecific - with particular reference to the Home Secretary and the Prime Minister. The chief complaints seem to be that: (i) figures of the casualties, damage and the number of bombs destroyed are not published; (ii) we were not better prepared beforehand against the bomb; (iii) it is not being more effectively dealt with now.

The belief that there is no official evacuation scheme is also causing some criticism of the Government.

Security and publicity : General dissatisfaction that the raid news has been completely mishandled, with particular reference to:

  1. Lack of information about damage and casualties leading to:

    1. Rumours , London rumours being no less “fantastically exaggerated” than those in circulation in other parts of the country.

    2. Anxiety on the part of relatives and friends of Londoners. Service wives believe that men now going to Normandy will spread stories of the raids and make the men already there very anxious.

  2. “The official suggestion that morale has not been affected” , which irritates some people considerably. “Why are the Government telling people that the Germans have failed to upset morale, when everyone who knows people in bombed areas knows this is a lie?” General Smuts' reference to the bomb as a damp squib was not thought a happy one.

  3. The raids being described as “of no national importance” . This is said to have annoyed servicemen particularly, as they are “fighting to secure the safety of their homes and families”.

Defences : The majority appear to be critical on the various grounds that (i) no panacea has yet been found; (ii) the bombing of the launching bases seems useless; (iii) the absence of A.A. fire leaves people feeling unprotected and without the extra warning that danger is imminent.

A considerable minority however think that the defences are adequate, and all possible measures are being taken to stop the raids.

Sirens : The continual sounding of the sirens is thought ridiculous. by some people and is blamed for holding up work. Others dislike the strain of waiting and listening for the bomb after the siren has gone, and would prefer some form of local warning. Others again say that the sound of traffic drowns the approach of the bomb and causes anxiety to people in the street after the siren has gone.

Evacuation has taken place on a considerable scale among those who could get away, particularly women with children, who are said to be crowding the main line stations all day. Urgent enquiries as to how to get out of London are reported from many W.V.S. and C.A.B. centres.

There is reported to be a growing demand for an official evacuation scheme, particularly for children. People are angry, in the belief that no plan has been put into operation, and attempts to get away are, in a few instances, said to be “verging on panic”.

Servicemen's wives want their fares paid; and people who have relatives in non-reception areas want billeting allowances paid if they go to stay with them.

Sheltering has become “the next best thing to evacuation” for a great many Londoners. In some parts there is a general rush to the shelters when a bomb is heard, and men are said to show little signs of the “women and children first” spirit.

Many more people are sleeping in shelters, both public and private, than was noticed in the blitz, and some are said to refuse to leave shelters day or night.

The tubes and some big public shelters are “packed and unpleasant”. Children are running about dirty and uncared for, wetting on the floor unchecked; they appear to get little or no sleep and to need more supervision.

There is a demand for more public shelter accommodation - people in Euston and Peckham shelters having been obliged to sit or stand all night - and for more medical care in public shelters.

Children : Parents, teachers, and members of various organisations express great anxiety for children who can be seen “playing about in the streets” during alerts. Some lead by educational authorities is demanded about the question of school attendance during the raids. Some children go, others are kept at home, others again are on their way to school when an alert is sounded and are uncertain as to what to do. Many women have stopped going to work owing to the desire to be with their children. This and other causes are said at a big Greenwich factory and elsewhere to have made attendance “go all to hell”.

Parents are very critical that school examinations are being held at this time.

Husbands working away from home are anxious about wives and children.

The bombed out in some areas south of the river are “very angry” about the lack of consideration shown them by the authorities. They feel that insufficient is being done to rehouse them and protect their goods and property when it has suffered from blast.

Compensation is said to be “insufficient for necessities” [Text Missing] some people complain that they are having to give up their clothing coupons for household linen replacements. The damage done to property is said to be much discussed and considerably exaggerated.

C.D. workers are warmly praised by the public. They themselves say they were ready for this emergency. They prefer dealing with these incidents to those during the blitz. They think the casualties are light.

Secret weapon No. 2 is the cause of growing fear. People wonder anxiously “What next he has up his sleeve”. People are incredulous but uneasy at the idea of a rocket bomb; some believe it could wipe out a whole borough.

B. SOUTH EASTERN DISTRICT : Reactions vary considerably according to the areas from which they are reported. People seem about equally divided between:

  1. Those who are carrying on as usual and getting used to it. A few even laugh at the raids and say that “if Hitler thinks he can win like this, he's got to guess again”.

  2. Those who are nervous, shaken and unhappy and who find these raids worse than any in the past. Many are very tired, and their morale is said to be lowered. People in areas which have suffered feel that a small additional ration of tea would be a great help.

Defences : Praise of the fighters is widespread ... they are said to “bring them down in hundreds”. A.A. gunfire is, however, criticised as futile, costly, damaging to property and preventing sleep, though a few find it helpful as indicating the route taken by “the little devils”.

Barrage balloons are felt to be effective in Tunbridge Wells, and some Canterbury people are anxious at having lost theirs.

In Haslemere it is complained that several bombs have gone over without an alert being sounded.

C. EASTERN REGION : In areas where the missiles have fallen, people are said to be suffering from sleeplessness and strain. In other areas where the alerts have sounded, there is said to have been no undue alarm but a noticeable shelter-consciousness and tendency to get up at night when the siren goes. There is some dissatisfaction reported at too many sirens being sounded during the night at Watford and Welwyn. There is also concern at crash warnings in factories while people in the streets and in schools are unaware of any danger.

D. SOUTHERN REGION : Generally the continuance of the raids, and stories spread by the increasing number of evacuees, appear to be leading to more nervousness, although in the South-Western part of the Region people are thankful for the capture of the bases in the Cherbourg peninsula and consequent removal of danger. At Slough people are said to be disturbed at the lack of public warnings during the day, particularly for children in the schools, whilst war workers in factories are ordered to the shelters; weariness of Civil Defence workers is noted here.

E. THE REST OF THE COUNTRY consider themselves out of range, though a little uneasy speculation is reported at the possibility of the range of the flying bomb being ultimately extended.

The disappearance of their balloons is, however, causing a little uneasiness in a working-class quarter of Newcastle, where people are suggesting that the Germans are using the flying bomb as a means of getting the balloons away to clear the sky for bomber attacks.

(1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13)

3. The invasion of France

There is intense and widespread satisfaction with our progress, together with continuing relief that our armies are now firmly established in France, and great confidence in our maintaining progress. However, “ups and downs” and stiff fighting ahead are fully expected.

Great praise continues for the organization and planning; the leaders and generals, especially General Montgomery; the troops, British, Canadian and American - people's opinion of the latter has risen by “leaps and bounds”; and for the team-work between the three Services, and between the British and Americans.

The fall of Cherbourg was greeted with great enthusiasm, and the Americans widely praised, particularly for the speed with which they did the job. Some ask whether it will be possible to land supplies direct from America.

Most people are satisfied with progress in the Caen sector, though a minority are anxious. The British and Canadians are praised for their “doggedness”. A few suggest we are going slow here before a big push, possibly to coincide with a second landing.

Bad weather has caused exasperation; in one agricultural district, though the recent rain was needed, it was said “we are all praying for fine weather and a good harvest for our bombers”.

A few people think the German tanks are better than ours.

The statement on British casualties (June 28) was appreciated, and accepted by the majority with relief. But apprehension continues, especially among relatives, that as the campaign develops, and possibly even now in the Caen fighting, there may be a very different story.

Confidence in the medical care given to our wounded, which is much appreciated and is said to have reduced anxiety about casualties.

A few complain about mails (Three Regions), though others are satisfied. Some people who believe their relatives to be in France are extremely worried, having been without news for three weeks.

The rumour that General Montgomery is dead , captured, or wounded, is this week reported from four Regions.

Prisoners of war : From one Region each it is reported that (a) the news of our men being marched through the streets of Paris has made people think the same should be done to German prisoners here; (b) stories of the Germans murdering parachute troops have resulted in a surge of hatred; (c) people are surprised at the number of non-Germans captured, and ask if they are press-ganged or collaborators; (d) people dislike the saluting etc. accorded to high-ranking prisoners arriving in this country.

Women snipers (Six Regions): Intense indignation at stories of women snipers is again reported, but also some confusion because of conflicting information. It is again said that these women should be shot, and anger at the “soft” treatment meted out to Myra continues. The official denial about the snipers (June 26) is only mentioned in one report; it is said to have been welcomed, though people ask who sent the earlier reports.

The people of Normandy : There is confusion as to the attitude of the French, and feelings range from puzzlement to uneasiness and indignation. Reports are thought to have conflicted with each other, and more official information is wanted, rather than journalists' reports. Most people apparently think the French are on the whole unfriendly.

However, there is some sympathy for those in battle areas, and press pictures of devastated French towns make people hope this will not be necessary all the way to Berlin.

The well-fed and well-clothed appearance of the French continues to arouse considerable comment and surprise - they are thought to look better off than we are, and there are questions as to why we should feed them. It is again suggested we have not been told the truth about conditions in Europe.

There is little talk about the possibility of French refugees arriving here. However, in one east coast town “the fact is an ‘open secret’, and much bitterness is felt at the preparations made. Houses were quickly requisitioned for these refugees, yet servicemen's wives are living in totally inadequate rooms. Paid wardens are engaged as cooks for communal feeding centres, yet servicemen's wives having babies can get no home help.”

News presentation of the invasion continues to be widely praised on familiar lines.

Mention is again made of:

  1. The popularity of the War Reports after the 9 p.m. news (Eleven Regions). Only a small minority find some of the eye-witness accounts “too harrowing”.

  2. Some feeling that too much publicity is given to the Americans at the expense of our troops (Seven Regions).

(1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13)

3a. The next move

Further landings are generally expected. Some think these will be in the Pas de Calais area; Londoners hope so. Other suggestions are Norway (Two Regions), the Low Countries, the South of France, and the Balkans (One Region each).

(1. 3. 4. 5. 7. 9. 10. 12)

4. Russia

There is widespread admiration and pleasure at the Russian successes (All Regions), and the Russian news is once again to the fore in public comment - in some cases second only in military interest to the Normandy campaign. An increasing number hope the Red Army will reach Germany and Berlin first, for fear we shall be too soft.

Some doubt is expressed about the accuracy of Russian figures of German losses.

Finland : Very little sympathy, though small minorities feel she has been for a long time “between two fires”. The Government rather than the people are blamed for the situation. It is thought the campaign will soon be over.

The news of the break in U.S. diplomatic relations with Finland has been well received.

(1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13)

5. Italy

People are very satisfied with our steady progress and are confident it will continue - some expecting that the whole of Italy will soon be in our hands.

The fighting in Normandy, however, continues to overshadow this campaign, and there is criticism (Seven Regions) that both press and B.B.C. are not giving our men there “a fair show”.

General Alexander is widely praised.

British Servicemen having to salute Italian officers (Two Regions): Keen exception is taken; the men themselves are said to be particularly bitter.

(1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13)

6. Far East

Interest in the Far Eastern war is less this week, events nearer home overshadowing this theatre.

Satisfaction continues with progress in Burma and the Pacific, and with the recent naval success. People hope for more air attacks on Japan.

The desire for more news and better maps is again reported.

(1. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13)

7. Shooting of air force prisoners

Horror and anger against the Germans continue. Some fear we shall be too soft with the criminals.

(1. 2. 3. 5. 6. 7. 9. 10. 12)

8. General de Gaulle and the French National Committee

People continue uneasy and puzzled, and would like a clear statement about the present position. Feelings reported about General de Gaulle are:

  1. He and his provisional Government should be recognised (Three Regions). American policy is again blamed for our failure to do so.

  2. His proper place is in his own country (Two Regions). He should be there, “not as a politician but as a soldier to rally the French and enlist them in a new French Army”.

(1. 3. 4. 5. 6. 10. 11)

9. Broadcasting and presentation of news

See under Section 2, The flying bomb; Section 3, The invasion of France; and Section 5, Italy.

The debate on the Ministry of Information : Slight comment only. It is generally thought the Minister made a good case.

(2. 6. 7. 8. 13)



10. Food

Milk ration : The cut is deplored (Six Regions); particularly as it renews the hardship to old people who need extra milk.

Fruit and tomatoes : Complaints continue, on the same lines as last week, of the shortage and unfair distribution of fruit and tomatoes (Five Regions each).

(1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 9. 10. 11. 12)

11. Holidays

Many are hoping to get away and are disappointed that rail services to popular resorts are not being extended. Workers feel they need a change of air and environment, and that facilities for holiday travel should be allowed.

From restricted areas in Scotland there are “cries of distress” from people who normally let rooms or take boarders; many hope the ban on some of the holiday resorts may soon be lifted.

In the North Western Region, though holidays-at-home are thought well organised, it is felt the country would “get the dividends” on extra travelling facilities, as holidays-at-home are no substitute, particularly for women.

In the North Midland Region, it is suggested that in view of transport restrictions, waters hitherto the monopoly of distant clubs and individuals should be made available for local anglers.

In London people ask for more transport to open spaces during holidays-at-home times.

(2. 3. 5. 6. 7. 10. 11)

12. The Government proposals for the control of land

Little interest as yet.

Disappointment is reported that the Government has rejected the Uthwatt proposals for balancing compensation and betterment. It is feared that vested interests and speculation will remain, and the public interest be subordinated to them.

Cynicism about post-war conditions generally is said to have been confirmed.

However, some right-wing people are pleased that control of the land will only be enforced where essential for the public good, and not merely to please “doctrinaire planners”.

(1. 2. 4. 8)

13. The Government White Paper on Employment Policy

Interest and discussion remain limited. Workers are said to be sceptical, though some interest among businessmen is reported. The Government's acceptance of responsibility for the maintenance of employment at a high level is again welcomed.

(1. 2. 8. 11)

14. Holmfirth flood

Tradespeople in Holmfirth who lost stocks during the flood disaster are well satisfied with the way the Board of Trade officers have handled the job of providing them with replacements.

There is still concern about putting in order the River Holme. Local people feel that this ought to be a national charge.



U.S. troops in this country

During the past four weeks , friendly relations have increased “as the Americans are better understood”. U.S. achievements in Normandy have contributed to this improvement (Five Regions). Nevertheless, substantial minority criticism has again been reported, and continues in the Northern Region to outweigh praise (though to a lesser extent than last month). Many people think that much criticism comes from those who have not personally contacted the Americans, and that some tend to argue from the particular to the general, condemning all Americans because one or two are seen behaving badly.

Praise is particularly accorded to:

  1. U.S. soldiers' participation in “Salute the Soldier” and other savings weeks (Three Regions).

  2. The kindness to children of both black and white troops (Three Regions); though the children's begging habits are deplored and it is thought that in some cases parents encourage them by dressing the children up in rags.

  3. Their generosity (Three Regions).

  4. Their friendliness (Two Regions).

Other comment has centred chiefly round:

(a) Attitude to and behaviour with women and girls (Twelve Regions). Much the most criticism of U.S. troops still comes under this heading. At the same time, many continue to feel the girls themselves, and their parents, are at least as much to blame; it is thought the Americans' money is the chief explanation for the girls' behaviour.

Wives of British servicemen and “undesirable” women are also thought partly responsible.

More police vigilance and more policewomen are asked for.

The question in the House by Mr. Kendall, M.P . (25 May) has aroused some comment (Three Regions). The majority view is that the “stifling” of Mr. Kendall was “another example of the official attitude that the Americans must not be criticised”; however, a few think Mr. Kendall was wrong in “blaming all the Americans for the sins of a few”.

(b) Coloured troops (Eight Regions): The attitude of white Americans is again condemned (Six Regions), as is the attitude in some cafes, etc to which coloured soldiers are refused admission. Some continue to think they are better behaved than white troops, though with others their popularity is declining because of their behaviour with women and girls.

General Eisenhower's recent action in commuting the death sentence on a black soldier for alleged rape caused great relief.

(c) Hospitality (Eight Regions). People are said to be anxious to give the Americans a “very warm welcome”; and where hospitality has been extended there have been “very happy results”. However, there are continued complaints of their neither turning up, nor sending an apology, after accepting an invitation (Three Regions).

Some feel more clubs and canteens are wanted, particularly of the Welcome Club type, because in this way the Americans meet “the nicer type of girls”.

(d) Appearance and demeanour (Five Regions). Allegations of unsoldierly, slovenly appearance continue, also of “profusion of non-fighting medals”. People also find the Americans “bumptious”.

(e) Transport (Five Regions). Reckless driving is again alleged.

(f) Comparisons between conditions for our troops and the Americans (Five Regions). Comment about disparity of pay has decreased considerably, although there is still some resentment. It is also thought the Americans are better off for clothing, clubs, food, “luxuries”, restrictions on leave and regulations; e.g. “our soldiers's wives cannot visit Colchester for the weekend, but the Americans' girlfriends can”.

(g) Shortages (Four Regions). Some people feel the Americans buy up tomatoes and other fruit; others blame them for the beer shortage.

(h) Insanitary habits (Three Regions). Complaints continue of leaving contraceptives lying about and of using doorways as lavatories.

(i) Drinking (Three Regions). There is felt to have been much more moderation of late.

(j) Waste (Three Regions). People still feel petrol is being wasted. In the South Western Region there were widespread and vigorous protests against the alleged destruction by departing U.S. troops (at the time of D-Day) of large quantities of equipment, stores and commodities, including furniture, clothing, books, food, tobacco, spare parts, packing cases, paper, equipment of all kinds, and even live ammunition. It is said to have aroused horror among people badgered for so long into being thrifty and salvage minded.

(1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13)

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